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The small robots, known as M-Blocks, have no external parts but can move using an internal flywheel mechanism.
They stick together using magnets. These machines have a single spinning actuator inside that is used to create enough force to detach from one magnetic side and fling itself to the next available position. This actuator is powerful enough to move one block multiple spaces depending on what is needed, effectively giving the blocks the ability to jump from place to place.
The scientists envisage miniaturised "swarmbot" versions self-assembling like the "liquid steel" androids in the Terminator films.
More realistically, the researchers at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), believe armies of such cubes could be used for making temporary repairs to bridges or buildings, or as self-assembly, re-configurable scaffolding.
Modular robots have the advantage of being able to adapt to whatever task or terrain is presented to them.
John Romanishin, one of the research scientists at CSAIL leading the project, said: "We want hundreds of cubes, scattered randomly across the floor, to be able to identify each other, coalesce, and autonomously transform into a chair, or a ladder, or a desk, on demand."
The M-Blocks are currently controlled by computer instructions sent over wireless radio, but in future the researchers hope algorithms can be loaded on the blocks directly, making them entirely autonomous and capable of adapting to different environments.
Blocks equipped with sensors and cameras would be able to work out how to accomplish specific tasks in combat or emergency situations, the scientists hope.